Function Core Functions

CatUp|Function Dump

==Basic Functions==

The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities.

'''assert (v [, message])'''

Issues an error when the value of its argument v is false (i.e., nil or false); otherwise, returns all its arguments. message is an error message; when absent, it defaults to "assertion failed!"

{{Example|1=<i></i> <!Ignore this; it acts oddly if it isn't here>
assert (false, "This is an error message")
Will result in:
Tue Oct 07 10:15:37 2008 - <font color="red">Cmd:1: This is an error message</font color>
Tue Oct 07 10:15:37 2008 - <font color="blue">Cmd, line 1</font color>
Tue Oct 07 10:15:37 2008 - <font color="blue">stack end</font color>

assert (false)
Will result in:
Tue Oct 07 10:14:18 2008 - <font color="red">Cmd:1: assertion failed!</font color>
Tue Oct 07 10:14:18 2008 - <font color="blue">Cmd, line 1</font color>
Tue Oct 07 10:14:18 2008 - <font color="blue">stack end</font color>

assert (true)
Won't display anything at all.
}}

'''collectgarbage (opt [, arg])'''

This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt:

* "stop": stops the garbage collector.
* "restart": restarts the garbage collector.
* "collect": performs a full garbage-collection cycle.
* "count": returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes).
* "step": performs a garbage-collection step. The step "size" is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg. Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle.
* "setpause": sets arg/100 as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10).
* "setstepmul": sets arg/100 as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).

{{Example|
<pre>
t = {}
for i = 0,20000 do
table.insert(t,i,i)
end
print(collectgarbage("count")) —> ~535.7998046875

t = nil

print(collectgarbage("count")) —> ~23.7197265625
</pre>
}}

'''dofile (filename)'''

Opens the named file and executes its contents as a Lua chunk. When called without arguments, dofile executes the contents of the standard input (stdin). Returns all values returned by the chunk. In case of errors, dofile propagates the error to its caller (that is, dofile does not run in protected mode).

{{Example|
'''File:''' <code>Hello.txt</code>

'''Contents:''' <code>print("Hello World!")</code>
<pre>
dofile("C:/Hello.txt")

Will result in:
Hello World!
</pre>
}}

'''error (message [, level])'''

Terminates the last protected function called and returns message as the error message. Function error never returns.

Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message.

Example|1=<i></i>
error ("this is an error message")
Will result in:
Tue Oct 07 08:18:36 2008 - <font color="red">Cmd:1: this is an error message</font color>
Tue Oct 07 08:18:36 2008 - <font color="blue">Cmd, line 1</font color>
Tue Oct 07 08:18:36 2008 - <font color="blue">stack end</font color>

'''_G'''

A global variable (not a function) that holds the global environment (that is, _G._G = _G). Lua itself does not use this variable; changing its value does not affect any environment, nor vice-versa. (Use setfenv to change environments.)

Example|1=<i></i>
function tellme()
for n,v in pairs(_G) do
print (n,v)
end
end<br>
tellme()<br>
Will result in a long list of global variables [http://www.wellho.net/resources/ex.php4?item=u112/globals].

'''<s>gcinfo ()</s>'''

Returns amount of dynamic memory in use. This is deprecated. Use collectgarbage ("count") instead.

{{Example|1=<i></i>
<pre>
print (gcinfo ())
Will result in something like:
28

a=collectgarbage ("count")
print(a)
Will result in something like:
29.6875
</pre>
}}

'''getfenv ([f])'''

Returns the current environment in use by the function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling getfenv. If the given function is not a Lua function, or if f is 0, getfenv returns the global environment. The default for f is 1.

Example|1=<i></i>
function myfunction()
print (getfenv(myfunction() ))
end<br>
myfunction()<br>
Will result in:
Mon Oct 13 14:33:37 2008 - <font color="blue">Workspace.Script, line 2 - global myfunction</font>

'''getmetatable (object)'''

If object does not have a metatable, returns nil. Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a "__metatable" field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object.

{{Example|
<pre>
t = {}
print(getmetatable(t))

Will result in:
nil
</pre>
<pre>
t = {}
setmetatable(t,{})
print(getmetatable(t))

Will result in:
table: 0687D540
</pre>
}}

'''ipairs (t)'''

Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t, and 0, so that the construction

for i,v in ipairs(t) do body end

will iterate over the pairs (1,t[1]), (2,t[2]), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table.

{{Example|
<pre>
days = {"Sunday", "Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday", "Saturday"}
revdays = {"Sunday", "Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday", "Saturday"}
for i,v in ipairs(days) do
revdays[v] = i
print(revdays[v])
end

Will result in:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
</pre>
}}

'''load (func [, chunkname])'''

Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of nil (or no value) signals the end of the chunk.

If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment.

chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information.

'''loadfile ([filename])'''

Similar to load, but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given.

{{Example|
'''File:''' <code>file.txt</code>

'''Contents:''' <code>print("This is the contents of a file.")</code>
<pre>
f = loadfile("C:/file.txt")

f()

Will result in:
This is the contents of a file.
</pre>
}}

'''loadstring (string [, chunkname])'''

Similar to load, but gets the chunk from the given string.

To load and run a given string, use the idiom

assert(loadstring(s))()

{{Example|
<pre>
a = 2
loadstring("b = 3")()
print(a+b)

Will result in:
5
</pre>
}}

'''next (table [, index])'''

Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil. If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil. In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty.

The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices. (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.)

The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields.

{{Example|
<pre>
days = {"Sunday", "Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday", "Saturday"}
print(next(days))
print(next(days,4))

Will result in:
1 Sunday
5 Thursday — cf. print(days[4]), which gives you Wednesday
</pre>
}}

'''pairs (t)'''

Returns three values: the next function, the table t, and nil, so that the construction

for k,v in pairs(t) do body end

will iterate over all key–value pairs of table t.

See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal.

{{Example|
<pre>
t = {1,2,"a","d",c = 12, q = 20}
for i,v in pairs(t) do
print(i,v)
end

Will result in:
1 1
2 2
3 a
4 d
c 12
q 20
</pre>
}}

'''pcall (f, arg1, ···)'''

Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode. This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message.

{{Example|
<pre>
if pcall (function() print("Hi Mom!") end) then
else print("There were errors")
end

Will result in:
Hi Mom!
</pre>
<pre>
if pcall (function() ppppprint("Hi Mom!") end) then
else print("There were errors")
end

Will result in:
There were errors
</pre>
}}

'''print (···)'''

Receives any number of arguments, and prints their values to stdout, using the tostring function to convert them to strings. print is not intended for formatted output, but only as a quick way to show a value, typically for debugging. For formatted output, use string.format.

{{Example|
<pre>
print ("Hello!")

Will result in:
Hello!
</pre>
}}

'''rawequal (v1, v2)'''

Checks whether v1 is equal to v2, without invoking any metamethod. Returns a boolean.

{{Example|
<pre>
print(rawequal (5, 3))

Will result in:
false
</pre>
<pre>
print(rawequal (5, 5))

Will result in:
true
</pre>
}}

'''rawget (table, index)'''

Gets the real value of table[index], without invoking any metamethod. table must be a table; index may be any value.

{{Example|
<pre>
days = {"Sunday", "Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday", "Saturday"}
print(rawget (days, 2))

Will result in:
Monday
</pre>
}}

'''rawset (table, index, value)'''

Sets the real value of table[index] to value, without invoking any metamethod. table must be a table, index any value different from nil, and value any Lua value.

This function returns table.

{{Example|
<pre>
rawset (_G, "test", 42)
print (test)

Will result in:
42
</pre>
}}

'''select (index, ···)'''

If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index. Otherwise, index must be the string "#", and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received.

Example|
<pre>
print(select (3, "a", "b", "c", "d", "e", 1, 2, 3))
Will result in:
c d e 1 2 3
print(select ("#", "a", "b", "c", "d", "e", 1, 2, 3))
Will result in:
8
</pre>

'''setfenv (f, table)'''

Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv. setfenv returns the given function.

As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values.

{{Example|
<pre>
_G.a = 1 — create a global variable
setfenv(1, {_G = _G}) — change current environment
_G.print(a) —> nil
_G.print(_G.a) —> 1

Will result in:
nil 1
[http://www.lua.org/pil/14.3.html]
</pre>
}}

'''setmetatable (table, metatable)'''

Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil, removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a "__metatable" field, raises an error.

This function returns table.

{{Example|
<pre>
t = {"a","b","c"}
mt = {"Orange","Apple","Microsoft"}

setmetatable(t,mt)

for i,v in pairs(getmetatable(t)) do
print(i,v)
end

Will result in:
1 Orange
2 Apple
3 Microsoft
</pre>
}}

'''tonumber (e [, base])'''

Tries to convert its argument to a number. If the argument is already a number or a string convertible to a number, then tonumber returns this number; otherwise, it returns nil.

An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter 'A' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, 'B' represents 11, and so forth, with 'Z' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number may have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted.

{{Example|
<pre>
print(tonumber (11111111, 2))

Will result in:
255
</pre>
<pre>
print(tonumber ("FF", 16))

Will result in:
255
</pre>
}}

'''tostring (e)'''

Receives an argument of any type and converts it to a string in a reasonable format. For complete control of how numbers are converted, use string.format.

If the metatable of e has a "__tostring" field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result.

{{Example|
<pre>
a=tostring("The answer to 2+2 is " .. 2+2)
print(a)

Will result in:
The answer to 2+2 is 4
</pre>
}}

'''type (v)'''

Returns the type of its only argument, coded as a string. The possible results of this function are "nil" (a string, not the value nil), "number", "string", "boolean", "table", "function", "thread", and "userdata".

{{Example|
<pre>
print(type (true))

Will result in:
boolean
</pre>
<pre>
print(type (3))

Will result in:
number
</pre>
}}

'''unpack (list [, i [, j]])'''
Returns the elements from the given table. This function is equivalent to

return list[i], list[i+1], ···, list[j]

except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5).

Example|
<pre>
t = { "the", "quick", "brown" }
print (unpack (t))
Will result in:
the quick brown
</pre>

'''_VERSION'''

A global variable (not a function) that holds a string containing the current interpreter version. The current contents of this variable is "Lua 5.1".

{{Example|
<pre>
print(_VERSION)

Results in:
Lua 5.1
</pre>
}}

'''xpcall (f, err)'''

This function is similar to pcall, except that you can set a new error handler.

xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err.

{{Example|
<pre>
function handle(err)
return "ERROR: " .. err:gsub("(.-:)","")
end

function f()
local a = nil
return a+1
end

print(xpcall(f,handle))

Will result in:
false ERROR: attempt to perform arithmetic on local 'a' (a nil value)
</pre>
}}


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